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BIOTECHNOLOGY RECEIVING JUICE FROM SOURCES OF MELON AND IT’S SAFETY

08 December 2017
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Authors: Taubai B.Sh., Eszhanova P.R., Myrzabek K.A., Almaganbetova A.T.
Session: Biotechnology

Introduction. Biotechnology has been used to make food products for more than 8,000 years. Modern biotechnology constantly influences the food industry by creating new products, as well as reducing the cost and improving the bacterial processes, from time immemorial used in food production. In addition, biotechnology provides a lot of opportunities for improving methods of processing raw materials in final products: natural flavors and dyes; new technological additives, including enzymes and emulsifiers; starter cultures; new means for waste disposal; environmentally friendly production processes; new means to ensure the safety of products during the manufacturing process; and even biodegradable plastic packaging that destroys bacteria.

Biotechnology is engaged in improving the quality of plant raw materials also in terms of its attractiveness to the buyer and ease of preparation. Scientists extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables; create a variety of melons and grapes that do not contain seeds. Biotechnology also provides the opportunity to produce products that, under the traditional approach, are economically unprofitable. For example, the industrial production of fructose polymers used as sweeteners has long ceased to be the prerogative of conventional methods of food processing. Polymers of fructose are short chains consisting of fructose molecules that taste like sugar, but do not contain calories. The researchers found a gene that converts 90% sugar of sugar beet into fructose polymers. They make up 40% of the weight of such a transgenic beet, which makes it a very attractive raw material for making sweeteners.

The most significant food safety problem for food producers is microbial contamination, which can occur at any stage of product movement from the farm to the consumer's table. Any biotechnological product that reduces the number of microorganisms on products of animal and vegetable origin significantly increases the safety of food industry raw materials. Pest-resistant plant varieties resistant to pests and diseases are much less susceptible to bacterial contamination. New biotechnological methods of diagnostics make it possible to identify the nature of bacterial diseases in the early stages and with a high degree of accuracy, which allows us to seize and destroy diseased animals or infected plants before the disease spreads.

The use of biotechnological techniques has led to significant progress in this area.

Melon - annual herbaceous plant of the family Pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae), species of the genus cucumber, melon culture, false-berry. The stem is rounded-faceted. The leaves are large on long petioles, in the axils of the leaves of the antennae. Flowers are dioecious, but they are also bisexual. Pollination with the help of insects. The fruit is a multi-seeded squash of various forms (from 200 g to 16 kg, depending on the variety).

The native land of melon is Central Asia and Asia Minor. Melon is a warm and light-loving plant, resistant to soil salinity and drought, does not tolerate high air humidity. On one plant, depending on the variety and place of cultivation can form from two to eight fruits. Melon fruits have a spherical or cylindrical shape, green, yellow, brown or white, usually with green stripes. The aging period is from two to six months. Getting new products from melons that preserve its nutritional and healing properties, and having the required organoleptic and textural indices is a promising direction at the present stage. Since melon fruits are characterized by low ease, there is a need to develop new principles for processing it to increase shelf life.

Materials and methods. The use of biotechnological methods in the production of enzymatic juices can significantly increase the depth of industrial processing of raw materials, product quality, biological value and taste. Such methods include the use of yeasts and microorganisms. The energy value of melon in terms of 100 g of edible part is 163 KJ. This is 10 times less than in 100 g of wheat, so it is advisable to grow melons not for energy storage, but for the accumulation of valuable nutrients.

At carrying out of researches juice from a melon of a grade "Torpedo" was used. This type of melon is pale orange, the skin is greenish-white-yellowish with green not continuous stripes, the flesh is yellowish pink, it tastes like the taste of a pumpkin. Fermentation of the juice was carried out with the help of yeast. Melon fruits were selected, manually cut into slices. Each constituent of the fruit was divided into four equal parts by weight. To produce juice, four samples were made, in which a different combination of the constituent parts of the fruit was present: 1. Pulp cake, seeds. 2. Pulp seeds. 3. The flesh is crusted. 4. Pulp.

The samples were passed through a juice extractor with a filter centrifuge, juice filtration was controlled on a press filter, and a solid residue from the centrifuge was separately pressurized on this filter. The resulting juice fractions were combined and weighed to within one gram. Determination of the content of solids (by refractometer). The method for determining the content of active acidity (pH) of volatile acids is based on the decomposition of salts of these acids with concentrated orthophosphoric acid at pH 2, followed by distillation of the formed free volatile acids with water vapor and determination by titration with 0.1N. solution of hydroxide.

Under the action of yeast, fermentation of raw materials components, mainly polysaccharides, as a result of which the yield of juice increases and its composition changes. In connection with this, it was of interest to determine the indicators of the chemical composition.

The yield of the juice determines, relative to the weight of the part of the fruit that has been squeezed out, and with respect to the total mass of the fruit-extraction.

Results and discussion. Melon fruits contain up to 18% of sugars, starch, fiber, proteins, mineral salts, vitamin C (up to 30 mg /%), B vitamins, carotene, a large amount of iron, folic and nicotinic acids, pantothenic acid, nitrogenous substances. Seeds contain up to 30% fatty oil. Fruits of different varieties differ in shape and size, mass, taste, color of flesh and crust. The length of the fruit varies from 4 cm to 2 m, and the mass varies from several tens of grams to 20 kg. Seeds are white or creamy, from 0.5 to 1.5 cm in length. Melon is even more thermophilic than a watermelon. Frosts, even light and short-term, are fatal for her. Growth stops at temperatures below +15 ° C, and at + 3-5 ° C, adult plants may die from the cold. In a small amount melon dried for long-term storage. Evaluation of melon fruits is advisable to perform according to biochemical analysis.

The production of a quality melon product is primarily carried out through the introduction of adapted varieties and hybrids using scientifically grounded cultivation processes in accordance with soil fertility, climatic and economic conditions. Growing of early, middle and late varieties allows to make a continuous conveyor of fresh fruit on the market within three to five months.

Quality control means checking the compliance of actual values ​​of quality indicators with their regulated values, which are established by regulatory documentation. When controlling the quality of melon fruits, it is determined not only compliance, but also non-compliance. Such a discrepancy is called a defect. Thus, the ultimate goal of quality control of melon fruits is to identify defect-free and defective specimens. Melons of high quality are obtained in melons and fodder crop rotations.

Table 1 - Macro and microelements of melon, mg in 100 g

Microelements

mg, in 100 g

Macroelements

mg, in 100

Zinc

0.09

Magnesium

13

Iodine

2 * 10-3

Sodium

32

Copper

47 * 10-3

Potassium

118

Manganese

0.035

Phosphorus

12

Fluoride

20 * 10-3

Chlorine

50

Table 2 - Chemical composition and nutritional value of melon juice

Substances

 

Content, g per 100 g

 

Melon Vitamins, mg per 100 g

 

Content, g per 100 g

 

Proteins

0.6

PP

0.4

Fat

0.3

carotene

0.4

Carbohydrates

7.4

A (RE)

67 * 10-3

Dietary fiber

0.9

V1 (thiamine)

0.04

Mono- and disaccharides

7.3

V2 (riboflavin)

0.04

Starch

0.1

V5 (pantothenic acid)

0.2

Ash

0.6

V6 (pyridoxine)

0.06

Saturated fatty acids

0.1

V9 (folic acid)

6 * 10-3

Potassium

118.0

 

 

Table 3 - Indicators of the chemical composition of melon juice before and after fermentation

Chemical composition

 

before fermentation,%

 

after fermentation,%

 

Juice output

0.12

0.15

Dry substances (by refractometer),

0.5

0.5

Active acidity (pH)

0.03

0.03

Titrated acidity

0.03

0.03

Organic acids, g / dm³

0.005

0.08

Conclusions From the table (1-3) data, it can be concluded that the experimentally selected and optimized experimental melon juice models have PP-vitamin activity and are characterized by a higher content of potassium and folic acid. Fermentation allows not only to improve the micronutrient composition and flavor properties, but also to stabilize betalain pigments and preserve the natural coloration during heat treatment. The yield of juice from various parts of melon is 80.4-89.0%. The largest extraction of 89% juice is obtained from the pure melon pulp, the smallest - from whole fruits containing all parts.

Bibliography and references
1. Egorova T.A., Fundamentals of Biotechnology. - Moscow: Publishing Center "Academy", 2003. - 208 pp. C101-102. 2. Maznev N.I., Watermelon edible // Encyclopedia of medicinal plants. - 3rd ed., Rev. and additional. - Moscow: Martin, 2004. - P. 78-79. - 496 pages - 10 000 copies. - ISBN 5-8475-0213-3. 3. Vasil'ev V.P., Analytical chemistry. Physicochemical methods of analysis: Textbook for Khimko - tekhnol. specialist. universities. - M .: Higher education. Shk., 1999. - 384p. 4. Ivanova E.I., Quality of melon fruits under different conditions of cultivation and storage / E.I. Ivanova, Т.А. Sannikova, I.M. Sokolova // Fruit and vegetable farming. - 1985. - No. 11. - P.55-56. 5. Ivanova E.I., On the issue of changing GOST 7178-85 "Melons fresh. Specifications »/ E.I. Ivanova, Т.А. Sannikov. // Tr. VNIIOB // Problems of irrigated vegetable growing and melon growing. - Astrakhan, 1991. - P. 50-54. 6. Sannikova T.A., Processing of commodity harvest and by-products of seed-growing of melons and gourds [Text] / Sannikova, EI. Ivanova, V.A. Machulkina, A.P. Ivanov // Agrarian Russia. - 2007. - No. 3. - P. 22-23. 7. Pavlov L.V., Industry standards for standard technological processes for the production of watermelon, melon, pepper and tomatoes [Text] / L.V. Pavlov, O.T. Paraskova, E.I. Ivanova, Т.А. Sannikova et al. // Selection and seed-growing of vegetable crops. - M., 2003. - 217c. 8. Evaluation of non-waste technology [Text] / V.V. Korinets, T.V. Boeva, Sh.B. Bayrambekov, Т.А. Sannikov and others - Astrakhan, 2009. - 7 p.

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