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BIOTECHNOLOGICAL METHODS OF PROCESSING OF MEAT OF A CAMEL

27 December 2017
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Authors: Serikbayev E.O., Eszhanova P.R., Serikbayev E.O., Eszhanova P.R., Myrzabek K.A.
Session: Biotechnology

Introduction

            Recently, many ways to improve the quality of consumer properties of meat products have appeared, and starting cultures occupy a leading position in this list. Correctly selected cultures contribute not only to the formation of consistency, pleasant taste and aroma of the product, stabilization of its color but also to suppression of the life activity of putrefactive and sanitary-indicative microorganisms.

On the Kazakh market, meat and dairy products have a lot of abundances, as they have always been part of the Kazakh consumer. Meat is a multicomponent biological system, the appearance of which differs from such factors as: view, gender, age, animal conditions, the composition and structure of the connective tissue of the animal, the amount of muscle tissue, the size of the muscle beams and fibers, the amount of intramuscular fat, the location of the meat in the carcase. Organoleptic parameters of ready-made meat products fully depend on initial characteristics of the used raw materials (its tenderness and rigidity). The most common consumer products are minced meat, which is the smallest part of the texture. Now, the actual problem is overcoming the sting of meat containing an increased amount of conjugate tissue.

In order to avoid the tough of meat production in practice products use different methods of influencing raw materials with a high content of connective tissue, in particular, mechanical and biotechnological methods. According to the data available in the literature, the use of biotechnological processing is more expedient and advantageous in comparison with mechanical methods, since it allows not only to save labor and energy resources but also to obtain meat products with high juiciness and tenderness from raw materials with a high proportion of connective tissue inclusions.

It should be noted that in order to improve the quality of meat products from raw materials with an increased content of connective tissue, the use of enzyme preparations that cause proteolysis of connective tissue proteins of collagen containing raw material is of undoubted importance.

In our country, much attention is paid to improving national food technology, combining increased biological and nutritional value. One of these sources of regional raw materials for the meat industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan is camel meat.

The production of camel breeding regularly grows, but this trend is mainly related to the increase in the number of livestock and the frequency of slaughter (for meat) or the proportion of milking animals (for milk). However, data on the receipt of meat products from these animals, preservation of useful initial properties, factors affecting quality meat and its nutritional value, very little. Hence the task is to study the features of camel meat, its chemical composition, physicochemical and technological properties in order to improve the processing technology for this type of meat raw materials and to develop new types of products with high nutritional and biological properties [1].

Camel breeding in Kazakhstan has been practiced since ancient times, and this branch of the economy is extremely lucrative, because, in conditions of semi-desert climate, it provides for the population's needs in meat, milk, and wool. Not enough attention is paid to the meat of camel meat, as raw materials for the production of meat products. Although Kazakhstan is considered a large camel breeding republic, which has a great scientific-practical experience of its cultivation. In recent years, the number of camels in the country has not only stabilized but also tends to grow [2-3].

Materials and methods

The perspective of the meat-processing industry is associated with the development of theoretical support and applied aspects of biotechnology of meat and meat products [3-4]. In order to improve the technical and economic efficiency of production, intensify it, expand the range, develop new and non-traditional types of products, improve the quality of products, modern achievements in technical biochemistry play a leading role, in particular, the use of proteolytic enzyme preparations for meat processing.

Taking into account the enzymatic nature of the processes, occurring during the ripening and salting of meat, the use of various proteolytic enzyme preparations, including microbial origin, contributes to their intensification. When choosing enzyme preparations, it is necessary to take into account the pH-optimum of the action of proteinase and meat pH contained in them, since their action is most effective under conditions close to those at which tissue proteinases are active.

Experience shows that artificially introduced protease preparations provide a similar autolytic effect to the transformation of protein structures, but the processes of ripening of meat under their influence proceed several times more intensively and end in a shorter period [5-6]. So, for example, when using the enzyme preparation of collagenase, the ripening process and amniotic saline are intensified with the improvement of functional-technological, structural-mechanical properties and an increase in the biological value of meat.

The use of enzymes for the processing of meat is based on enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins, changes in the structural elements of meat, improving the biochemical and physico-chemical indices of its quality.

To soften meat, facilitate its processing, enzyme preparations of proteolytic action ("Protepsin") are widely used. The use of enzyme preparations on an industrial scale is associated with the technological tasks of the uniform distribution of enzymes when they are introduced into meat. The following methods for treating meat with proteolytic enzymes are used:

- intravital injection of the drug by injection;

- intramuscular syringe of meat carcasses;

-processing the surface of meat by spraying the enzyme solution or applying powdered preparations to the surface of the meat;

- immersion of meat in the solution of enzymes after mechanical loosening;

- restoration of dehydrated sublimation of meat in enzyme solution.

Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages.

1. Introduction of a solution of an enzyme preparation through the circulatory system by injections into the animal's body during life. The intravital introduction of the drug ensures its uniform distribution and a good softening effect, shortens the ripening time, increases the amount of meat suitable for roasting. However, it should be noted that with the introduction of sufficiently high doses of the drug there is anaphylactic shock and a violation of normal body functions.
            2. Surface treatment of meat by spraying an enzyme solution or applying powdered preparations to the surface of meat. The method has limited application in view of the uneven transformation of protein structures: meat on the surface softens too much, but inside it is not enough. [7].

3. Inside the muscular syringe of the meat carcass. The greatest effect was obtained with the introduction of the drug "Propepsin" in muscle tissue with multiple injections. Protepsin is used in an amount of 0.015-0.005% to the weight of the product. In this case, the efficiency of the process is significantly increased when introducing enzymes under pressure together with a sterile vacuum or nitrogen. Gases, loosening the structure of the muscle tissue, contribute to a better distribution of the enzyme between the cells. Another method is used - needleless - the introduction of drugs into the meat under ultra-high pressure (200 · 10 5 Pa).

Results and discussion

Preliminary results of research conducted by some scientists show that the amino acids in camel milk are similar in composition to the hormone of insulin, and the share of fat in camel meat varies from 1.2% to 2.8%. Fat in camel meat is characterized by a low content of saturated amino acids.

Table 1 - Amino acid composition of camel meat, g / 100 g of product

Amino acids

g / 100 g product

Amino acids

g / 100 g product

Valine

1,03

0,9

Alanine

0,69

0,73

Leucine

1,38

1,29

Arginine

1,43

1,40

Isoleucine

0,74

0,68

Aspartate

1,34

1,42

Lysine

1,78

1,66

Histidine

0,68

0,62

Methionine

0,49

0,45

Glutamate

2,20

2,39

Threonine

0,72

0,66

Proline

0,51

0,47

Tryptophan

0,25

0,23

Tyrosine

0,45

0,52

Phenylalanine

0,70

0,64

Glycine

0,89

0,90

 

Based on these indicators, it can be argued that eating camel meat reduces the risk of heart disease. Camel in a fresh form should be stored only in the refrigerator, using it for several days. Frozen meat has a longer shelf life. If you follow a certain regime (not higher than -18 degrees), it can be stored for six months. In addition, the camel can be dried. In a similar form, this product can be stored for 1-2 months. In this case, the dried camel is not recommended for freezing, as during unfreezing, meat can acquire a bitter taste. The caloric content of the camel is 160.2 kcal. At the same time, cooked meat contains 230 kcal per 100 grams. Therefore, the camel is a dietary product, and it is advised to people who watch their weight because it does not have internal fat layers. At the same time, in stewed and fried, the caloric content rises to 205 and 281 kcal, respectively, which is also not much.

Immersion of meat in the enzyme solution after mechanical loosening. Simply immersing meat in an enzyme solution is ineffective, since in this case, only the surface of the meat undergoes the greatest changes (a complete lysis of the structures of the muscle tissue occurs), while in the deep layers the changes are minimal. The combination of preliminary mechanical loosening with the subsequent immersion of meat in the enzyme solution, as well as the "massing" of meat in the enzyme solution gives a good quality of meat and a small loss of moisture during its processing.

Good results are provided by the restoration of dehydrated (dehydrated) sublimation of meat in an aqueous solution of a softening agent. This creates conditions for the enzyme to contact not only the surface of the meat but also with internal structures by penetrating the solution into a well-developed system of pores and capillaries. In the process of dehydration of meat, a uniform contact of the enzyme with the basic protein structures is ensured. As a result, the maximum softening of meat is achieved with a minimum consumption of the enzyme. The positive effect on softening of meat renders table salt. The chemical composition of the camel is characterized by an increased content of proteins, fats, vitamins (A, B1, B3, B9, C, E) and minerals (potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus).

Table 2 - Nutritional value of camel meat depending on heat treatment, g / 100 g of product

Kind of camel meat

Proteins

Fats

Zola

Water

Calorie content, kcal

Raw meat

18,9±0,26

9,4±0,47

1±0,1

70,7±3,53

160,2±8,21

Roast

33,3±9,03

16,5±0,83

1±0,2

70,7±2,97

281±9,67

Cooked

29,8±0,35

12,4±0,09

1±0,01

70,7±3,5

230±2,15

Stewed

24,3±1,22

12,1±0,84

1±0,2

70,7±3,75

205±3,25

Conclusions Enzymatic processing of raw materials gives the meat a delicate consistency, the necessary flavor, and aroma. Camel meat by biological, physical and chemical characteristics is a product of high nutritional value, containing a significant number of amino acids. Camel is useful for the health of the skin and mucous membranes, nervous and digestive systems. The microelements that make up the meat regulate the sugar in the blood. The meat of camel contains antioxidants. The use of enzymes in the meat industry is promising to accelerate the ripening and softening of hard camel meat.

Bibliography and references
1. Kenenbay Sh., Description of camel raw materials// MNPK "Zootechnical science of Kazakhstan: past, present, future", - Almaty, 2014, -с237-241. 2. Baymukanov DA, Camel breeding of Kazakhstan of the XXI century. - A .: Bastau, 2009.- 208s. 3. Kenenbai Sh.Y., Development of the technology of production of semi-finished products and meat products of high biological value from camel meat, thesis - Almaty: ATU, 2002. - 253p. 4. Manakov, MN, Protein Protein Production / M.N. Manakov. M .: High School, 2009.- 142s. 5. Alekhina LT, Technology of meat and meat products .- M., Agropromizdat, 1998.- 140s. 6. Antipova LV, Application of an enzyme preparation of collagenase in order to reduce the rigidity of meat. Antipova, L.A. Zubairova, O.S. Pershina // Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials - 2004. - No. 12. - P. 38-39. 7. Zubayrova LA, Influence of fermentation of meat raw materials on the quality characteristics of finished products / L.А. Zubairova In the collection: III All-Russian scientific-practical conference of young scientists and graduate students "Youth science and agroindustrial complex: Problems and prospects" - Ufa, 2009. - P.129-131.

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