Nowadays, every time you turn on the television or flick through the pages of a newspaper, you learn about the problem of dangerous climate change. This is a problem of all mankind, in the scientific sense, it is certainly not a problem of only one discipline. It is regarded by experts from around the world for a long time. In fact, the Paris Conference COP21 - the last chance to make progress. In 2011, an agreement was signed, according to which an action plan developed and agreed by the end of 2015.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, the economic activity of many countries has increased, and one of the consequences is the accumulation of greenhouse gases that lead to climate change.
It is paradoxical, but the poor countries, this is reflected most of all, although it is obvious that their "share" in a lot less pollution. We must stop this process and find a carbon-free alternative to fossil fuels, otherwise, the next generation will inevitably face disaster. However, it should be borne in mind that the cost of reducing emissions must be coordinated with the expected economic gains.
It can be argued that politicians are involved in the solution of this problem recently. Indeed, the political recognition of the urgency of the problem only became apparent on a global scale since the publication of the Stern on the economics of climate change in 2006. Stern, former chief economist of the British government wrote in a major - and controversial - economic review: "Climate change is the greatest market failure the world has ever seen."
What is climate change?
Since 1850, the average temperature of the planet has risen by almost 1 degree. According to some models, even if the temperature increase of 2 degrees, it can lead to dangerous consequences. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere has increased by 30%. The area of Arctic sea ice is reduced by an average of 4% every ten years since 1979. 9 of the 10 warmest years recorded have occurred since 2000. Economy relevant in solving this problem, as it explains why human behaviour leads to climate change, provides systematic evaluation methods (and monetize) the costs and benefits of different interventions and strategies.Though, it is necessary to distinguish between the general concept of the economy and the concept of the economy in most of the literature on climate change, the economy or Stern. Stern, former chief economist of the British government, wrote in a major - and controversial - economic review: "Climate change is the greatest market failure the world has ever seen."However, the economics does not exist in isolation from that of other disciplines addressing the same problem. Climate scientists address the likelihood and risks of extreme events, and draw conclusions about what “one can safely say, for all practical purposes”. Ethics considers issues of intergenerational equity when climate damages are uncertain and far in the future. Engineering and architecture give insights into how the capital stock be designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Economic geography and history provide understanding as to how economies grow and how technologies diffuse and evolve. Political science considers how societies make decisions regarding public policy
Paris climate agreement was accepted December 12, 2015. The Paris Agreement builds upon the Convention and – for the first time – brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, with enhanced support to assist developing countries to do so.The main objective of the Paris conference - to limit the increase in atmospheric temperature maximum of two degrees compared to the average temperature of 1850-1899 years.This is an ambitious long-term project, which has already agreed to the participating countries. However, there are serious disagreements about how to achieve this.Developing countries argue that they need to use fossil fuels such as oil, coal and gas, in order to overcome poverty. Rich countries are free to use such fuel for 200 years, and now it is the poor countries, they say. Accordingly, the agreement, achieved in Paris, will have to strike a balance between the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and the right to the use of fossil fuels.
The critical question remains - who will pay for it?
The 195 participants of the forum agreed to prevent the increase of the average temperature on the planet by 2100 by more than 2 ° C compared to pre-industrial levels. However, the document does not provide quantitative commitments to reduce or limit CO2 emissions, so that each country will determine its own policy in this area.The first global summing up will take place in 2023.Kazakhstan signed the Paris Agreement on Climate August 2 this year. October 27 the Parliament of RK adopted the Law "On ratification of the Paris Agreement."Refusal of carbon-based fuels is obviously affecting the economy of our country. Since the export of fuel - the basis of the economy of Kazakhstan. I hope that neither our government nor the world as a whole will not suffer from economic or climatic disasters.