Coal as a solid fuel is a major pollutant of the atmosphere in many countries, producing soot and CO2 emissions. However, there are more and more technologies for processing coal into synthetic oil with high octane and chemical raw materials. The coal industry in the future will be a "green" industry.
Synthetic fuels «H-coal technology» is produced in South Africa and the United States, but it is expensive. In Nigeria, Qatar, Malaysia and the United States about 50 sites with a total capacity of more than 300 million tons of fuel per year are at the stage of design and construction . The volume of investments in this sector in the world has exceeded $ 15 billion, and synthetic fuel production has reached 20 million tons per year.
The largest coal company in Poland "Kopalnya Venglovy" has launched the Plant with the apacity of 5 million tons of coal a year for the production of liquid fuels and chemicals from coal. 1 liter of gasoline from coal will cost half the price of conventional petrol.
Since 2004, within the framework of the Energy Charter of the European Union a dialogue is being conducted on the development of alternative types of liquid motor fuels, especially biofuels, and artificial synthetic fuels produced from gas and solid carbonaceous materials.
In Krasnoyarsk, obtaining of synthetic crude oil from a mixture of 50% of the coal with water under high pressure to the cavitation mechanical and electromagnetic treatment was successfully tested. In this case instead of pure water waste water can be used.
In Priozersk(kazakhstan) a pilot plant is being built for production of synthetic fuel from lignite with addition of hydrogen. The plant is capable of processing 65 thousand tons of Karazhyrinskogo field (near Semipalatinsk) a year.
1. DGP "Research Institute of New Chemical Technologies and Materials" (NHTiM) the execution, with the support NNTH "Parasat" with the participation of the Institute of Organic Synthesis and Coal (Karaganda). All the equipments were designed by Kazakhstani scientists
The low-temperature plasma technology is applied, resulting in an increase in the reaction rate and selectivity. The project also succeeded in alloying metals from recycled coal ash parts, molecular hydrogen, and carbon nanotubes. The natural oil octane number is approximately 50-60, in synthetic - 80-100 .. In the process of synthesis of new catalysts used and the pressure of 50 atmospheres instead of 300 in similar industries .. non-waste production. The obtained gas is used as fuel in the process of synthesis
An agreement with the Institute of Metallurgy (Shanghai University) to conduct joint research work on processing of coals, agreed to work together in the field of coal liquefaction with the Heilongjiang government center of industrial transformation. The agreement provides the future establishment of a joint venture in China for direct coal liquefaction. This project has also long been engaged in organic synthesis and director of the Institute of Chemistry, Academician Zenulla Muldahmetov, professor of the Karaganda State University Myrzabek Baikenov.
In Zaisan district of the East Kazakhstan region on the basis Kenderly coal-shale deposits it is planned to build a mini-plant to produce synthetic liquid fuels, fuels and lubricants, and paint and varnish materials by processing the stone, brown coal and oil shale
The catalytic properties of shale allow to carry out in the best conditions, the process of thermolysis of the organic mass of coal with a high degree of conversion to liquid distillate products without intensive coking.
The institute develops technologies NHTiM thermochemical processing of oil shale. The process of co-catalytic thermal processing of brown coal and oil shale deposits Kendyrlykskogo. Bitumen based products processing the mixture of oil shale and brown coal deposits Kendyrlyk meet the requirements of guests at the oil bitumen.
E.S. Mustafin at Karaganda State University created a pilot plant installation hydropulse productivity 10t / d processing of coal tar in light and medium oil fractions and organic substances, bitumen, mastic, which can be used to produce gasoline and diesel fuel fractions and pitch, and will be used in the manufacture of organic substances (acids, aldehydes, phenols). Very large temperature and pressure contributes to more efficient cleavage of high-molecular compounds