Каракулова А.М., Әділханұлы М.
Оңтүстік Қазақстан мемлекеттік педагогикалық университеті
Мақалада студенттерге ағылшын тілінде сөйлеу машығын дамыту әдіс-тәсілдері айқындалған. Зерттеу нысандары практикалық сабақтар және «English club» үйірмесінде тілге үйрету барысындағы тәжірибелер алынған.
В статье рассматривается методы развития разговорных навыков студентов. Результаты исследования выведены из практических занятий и проведения кружка «English club».
Speaking is "the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts" [1.p.13]. Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information " [2; 3, p.24, p.69]. Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching. Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues. However, today's world requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students' communicative skills, because, only in that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance, therefore, recent pedagogical research on teaching students conversation has provided some parameters for developing objectives and techniques.
English is the main goal for many adult learners. Their personalities play a large role in determining how quickly and how correctly they will accomplish this goal. Those who are risk-takers unafraid of making mistakes will generally be more talkative, but with many errors that could become hard to break habits. Conservative, shy students may take a long time to speak confidently, but when they do, their English often contains fewer errors and they will be proud of their English ability [4, p. 23]. It's a matter of quantity vs. quality, and neither approach is wrong so how shall we prioritize the two clearly important speaker goals of accurate(clear, articulate, grammatically and phonologically correct)language and fluent (flowing, natural) language?
English club experience
Conversation clubs are also one of the most useful activities which can help students improve their speaking skills. Students realize own mistakes in group conversation by listening to others’ speech. It helps them improve their critical thinking when they face different speaking skills, mentality, and culture. In communication, process participants improve the speaking experience and express their opinion in debating. There are many developing games in the conversation club, especially for fast answers that develop students’ reaction and reflexing ability.
In practical classes teaching there are different types of difficulties. Some students understand the topics at once but there are students who have troubles with reading, speaking, listening and writing. We find new ways of teaching methods to solve these problems. The individual approach defines the weak and strong sides of students. Taking advantages of new methods we increase levels of speaking, reading, writing and listening skills. Otherwise, we invite students in extracurricular time to deep enhancing of students’ language knowledge.
In this activity, students are supposed to be working in pairs. One student will have the information that other partner does not have and the partners will share their information. Information gap activities serve many purposes such as solving a problem or collecting information. Also, each partner plays an important role because the task cannot be completed if the partners do not provide the information the others need. These activities are effective because everybody has the opportunity to talk extensively in the target language [5, p.65].
On a given topic, students can produce ideas in a limited time. Depending on the context, either individual or group brainstorming is effective and learners generate ideas quickly and freely. The good characteristics of brainstorming are that the students are not criticized for their ideas so students will be open to sharing new ideas.
Students can briefly summarize a tale or story they heard from somebody beforehand, or they may create their own stories to tell their classmates. Storytelling fosters creative thinking. It also helps students express ideas in the format of beginning, development, and ending, including the characters and setting a story has to have. Students also can tell riddles or jokes. For instance, at the very beginning of each class session, the teacher may call a few students to tell short riddles or jokes as an opening [6, p.52].
Speaking is the key to communication. By considering what good speakers do, what speaking tasks can be used in class, and what specific needs learners report, teachers can help learners to improve their speaking and overall oral competency. Teaching speaking is a very important part of second language learning. The ability to communicate in a second language clearly and efficiently contributes to the success of the learner in school and success later in every phase of life. Therefore, it is essential that language teachers pay great attention to teaching speaking. Rather than leading students to pure memorization, providing a rich environment where meaningful communication takes place is desired. With this aim, various speaking activities such as those listed before can contribute a great deal to students in developing basic interactive skills necessary for life. These activities make students more active in the learning process and at the same time make their learning more meaningful and fun for them.
- G. Brown, G. Yule. Teaching the Spoken Language. UK, Cambridge University Press. Bygate, M. 1987.
- Burns Joyce, 1997). Speaking. Oxford University Press1983.
- Jeremy Harmer – How to teach English
- Jack C. Richards- Teaching Listening and Speaking
- Carter, R. and M. McCarthy. 1997. Exploring Spoken English. Cambridge University Press
- H. Douglas Brown, Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy, San Francisco State University, 1994, p. 268.
- Skehan, P. 1998.A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning. Oxford University Press
8. Tsui, A.B.M. 1994 English Conversation. Oxford University Press