ӘОЖ 372.8:811.111 Әділ Қ.Т
ҚазЭҚХСУ, Астана қаласы
WAYS TO INTENSIFY STUDENTS SPEECH INTERACTION IN THE
PROCESS OF TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
В статье рассматриваются особенности преподавания интерактивного аспекта общения на уроках иностранного языка.Особое внимание уделено проблеме формирования навыков и умений речевого взаимодействия студентов.Описаны под типы взаимодействия,которые образуют программы речевого поведения учителя,ученика или класса.
Ключевые слова: речевое взаимодействие, интеракционный аспект общения, иностранный язык, межкультурная коммуникация.
The requirements for a graduate of a comprehensive school with in-depth study of a foreign language (FL) today assume the following skiils: to take part in a conversation with one or several partners, to discuss what has been read,to give information about current events,using periodic press published at home and abroad languages.At the same time,students should use a vast vocabulary,appropriate grammatical structures and modern forms.However,often the direct interaction of students in a foreign language lesson is replaced by pronouncing the replicas, filling in the gaps in the dialogues, drawing up a dialogue by analogy with the sample, etc., while real interaction presupposes the teachers ability to organize the communication of students in the form of a polylogue, dialogical, and monologic speech with elements of unprepared utterance. In this regard, the activation of verbal interaction of students in a foreign language lesson is one of the most pressing problems in modern methods of teaching foreign languages.
This problem has long attracted the attention of educators, psychologists, methodologists and practical teachers. Thus, the humanistic concept of education (J.Dewey, Maslow, Rogers, Ya.A. Kamensky, etc.)was developed in pedagogy, subject-subject interaction was investigated (I.I Rydanova etc.). In psychology, the interactive aspect of communication is studied and deeply analyzed (GV Andreeva, B.F Lomov, Tyukov). In psychology,the interactive aspect of communicftion is studied and deeply analyzed (GV Andreeva,B.FLomov,Tyukov).In the methodology within the framework of the person-oriented approach,newmethods,technologies and techniques for activating the educational and cjgnitive activity of students are developed (R.Slavin,E.Aronson ,Kilpatrick,E.S.Polat,A.F.Budko,ets);Strategies and tactics of interpersonal interaction (N.R Aniskovich and others) are considered.Essentially new textbooks are being created,based on the communicative method of teaching foreign languages,which take into account the need for the development of students speech interaction.
However,despitethis,many problems of verbal interection between students in a foreign language lesson remain unexplored;Do not use many reserves to enhance student interaction.
Learning a foreign language is designed to form an individual who is able and willing to participate in intercultural communication.In the center of our attention there are means of formation of communicative skills.However,at present it ispossible to speak of a decrease in the motivation of schoolchildren to study a foreign language.That is why the formation of positive motivation should be considered by the teacher as a special task.As a rule,motives are associated with cognitive interests of students,the need for mastering new knowledge,skills,skills.
But the first and natural need for foreign language learners is communication.For the organization of a favorable climate,which orient students to communication,it is necessary to choose such forms of activities that will stimulate the activity of students.
Communicative system-activity approach in teaching a foreign language is based on the conviction that learning a language is a process,the effective mastering of which is possible through the use of language material in communication.Language is the basis for the storage and transmission of the culture of different peoples.The main function of speech activity is communication.A person says to influence the behavior,thoughts and feelings of others through speech activity.Hence,it is possible to teach communication only by involving students in various activities,by simulating real communication situations based on the systematization of linguistic material,which is the result of the system-activity approach.
The group from of communication is an urgent necessity for foreign language lessons,especially when it comes to communicative learning,since this method involes learning to communicate through communication.This form of organization of educational work in the classroom gives a lot:it develops the ability to communicate,provides the best conditions for the development of the ability to speak,provides an axchange Lessons between students,contributes to the growth of motivation for learning strengthens interpersonal relationships,teaches to better understand tach other,increases the status of the student in the team,makes it more effective Activity of the teacher.Non-traditional forms of conducting classes are aimed at increasing the effectiveness of students.The experience of shooltechers and the research gof innovator educators showed that non-traditional forms of conducting lessons support students interest in the subject and increase the motivation of the teaching.
Pre-school and junior school age is the most favorable period for mastering foreign languages.The plasticity of the natural meschanism of language acquisition by young children,imitationabilities,natural curiosity and the need for new knowledge,the absence of a “frozen system of attitudes” and the “Language barrier” contribute to the absence of a “frozen system of attitudes” and the “Language barrier” contribute to the effective solution of the taks of early education of children to a foreign language.
In the process of formation of skills and abilities of speech interaction,some authors distinguish three main stages:
1.formation of an indicative framework,including observation and analysis of speech behaviors of communication participants;
2.Formation of strategy and tactical methods of its realization in separate fragments of speech interaction;
3.Development of skillsn of speech interaction in conditions of real or close to real communication.
In accordance with the above,it seems necessary to define such concepts as strategy and tactics of communication.
We consider the communication strategy as a creative realization by the communicant of a plan for constructing verbal behavior with the aim of achieving a common or non-linguistic task of communication in speech event.The components of speech include such types of actions as argumentation motivation,expression of emotions (sympathies,antipathis), thinking aloud justification.
The tactic of communication is “a flexhible dynamic use of the speaker’s available skills to construct a speech course according to the speech plan he has planned for with the goal of achieving a language communication task limited to the listener’s speech flow or his non-verbal reaction to his initial speech course (5,p.41). The strategies used in communication are divided according to the aspects of communication into communicative,interactive and perceptual.Perceptual strategies allow you to control the perception and content of verbal communication.Communicative manage the content-semantic aspect of the development of communication the issuance of information.Interactive strategies allow you to regulate the communication process.Let’s consider in more detail the strategies that regulate the communication process:
1.Imyenie induce to speech actions,not only with the help of a demand,but also with the help of a proposal,advice;
2.The ability to create situations that cause the participants of speech interaction to discuss something,to exchange opinions;
3.3 mynie prompt participants in joint activities not only to respond to the speech actions of the interlocutor,but also to show their own initiative in communication;
4.The ability to call and maintain a positive motivation for communication communicants in communicating in a foreign language;
5.Ability to help in case of difficulty;
6.The ability to promptly prompt missing language ;
7.The ability to substantiate the untterance of a speech partner
8.The ability of the teacher to control his speech behavior and use speech as a means of communicative influence on the trainees.
Real natural communication is inherent in a phenomenon that has been termed communicative failure.Communicative failures particulary clearly reveal those features of a casual dialogue,thanks to which the communicative intentions of the speaker and their reading to listeners do not coincide.To eliminate them,certainaddinional compensatory strategies and tactics of speech behavior are reguired.They are designed to overcome communicative failures and compensate for gaps in knowledge through various verbal and non-verbal means.
Communication strategies also differ in their role in achieving a communicative goal.Thus,functionally more loaded statement strategies can affect:
1.Feasibility of the topic;
2.The attitude of the interlocutors to the subject of conversation;
3.Interest in the conversation;
4.The relevance of the conversation environment of the physical parameters of speech;
5.Conformance of the conversation environment of the physical parameters of speech;
6.Attitude to the manner to speak and to the emotional state;
7.Sourse of information;
The question of the types and forms of interaction becomes particulary important in the development of methods of taching the interactive aspect of communication.Traditionally,two types of interactions are distinguished by methodologists.The first type is the learning interaction in the teacher-pupil-class system,which creates optimal conditions for the formation of speech skills and abilities.In this type of interaction, different forms are distinguished,complementing each other and giving the learning activity a collective characteristicfor real communication.The second type is interaction,typical for outside of the learning situation.The basis for its selection is the purpose of communication and the roles that are to be performed.The following subtypes of interactions are distinguished:
-speakersegually interpret facts of reality;
-interpret the facts of reality in different ways;
-mutually inform each other about their attitude to the action,thereality,the content of the statement,the relation of the statement ti reality;
-eliminate their incompetence at the expence of each other:they request information about something or other;
-reveal the level of competence of each other: ask,ask,clarify,atc;
-impose their point of view:encourage,adviseprohibit,invite,etc:
-transferred to the educational activity on the system of the teacher-student relationship,theclass,these subtypes.
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